Overview: Smart Buildings As Enablers for a Smarter Grid
Buildings account for more than two thirds of the total electricity consumption and respective carbon emissions. The concept of the smart building has been spurred on by a demand for security, comfort and energy efficiency. Smart building will increasingly benefit from cheap, easily deployable sensing and actuation technologies being integrated into intelligent building automation systems. This trend presents new opportunities for resilient and sustainable grid operation.
The US government has set a target at 20% renewable energy by 2020, and it can be foreseen that an increasing number of buildings will be equipped with onsite renewables, such as wind and solar, in addition to large-scale wind and solar farms. Renewable generation poses well known planning and scheduling challenges, and may even threaten the overall stability and efficiency of the grid.
Smart buildings hold the potential to improve grid operations by being a smart consumer, agent and partner. A building acting as smart consumer leverages pertinent information about the processes it houses in the context of the electricity markets. Reduction of peak demand and overall consumption are two of the most significant benefits of being a smart consumer. However, a building acting as a smart agent, can offer even more services to the grid. The rapid deployment of onsite generation and storage has endowed the buildings with increased flexibility of their energy management strategies. Through these resources, if intelligently managed, buildings are poised to support grid stability and reduce the need for utilities to build more power plants, with the ultimate goal of carbon reduction in partnership with the electricity generation and distribution system.
These new opportunities for resilient and sustainable grid operation pose novel challenges for analyzing information exchanged among users, buildings and the grid, and synthesizing new service models that can improve efficiency, stability, and the quality of service. The development of a holistic energy management system necessitates an interoperable platform for integrating data from disparate sources, and a rigorous analytical and computational framework for optimizing overall system efficiency and resiliency. The availability of fine-grained user/system data from buildings and the grid also exposes privacy and security risks. There is clearly a need for tools and methods to address the efficiency-vulnerability tradeoff that is inherent to the system.
Workshop Schedule: November 6, 2016
The slides for the workshop can be downloaded HERE .
9:00am - 9:15am Opening Remarks: Ming Jin and Ruoxi Jia
9:15am - 10:00am Keynote 1: Costas Spanos
10:00am - 10:45am
Keynote 2: Sanjib Kumar Panda
- Fast and Reliable Power-Flow Service for Cooperative Building Microgrids | abstract
In the context of environmental pollution caused by conventional
thermal power generation and the need for sustainable energy supply, the future of
electrical grids are unequivocally dependent on interconnected distributed generations
based on renewable energy sources. Modern buildings, through their local installations
of photovoltaic panels, are becoming part of the paradigm shift where consumers can
become prosumers. But the inherent nature of intermittency and high variability of
the renewables results in misalignment between the pattern of power generation and
the pattern of consumption. This issue can be mitigated by pooling of the energy sources
through cooperation of multiple building grids. Under an intelligent management system,
the resilience of interconnected microgrids would become higher compared to an
individual building grid, since the aggregate storage/generation capacities would
increase significantly. This but poses the challenge of taking fast automated decisions
based on power-flow computations, so that the stability of the interconnected microgrid
is maintained and the supply is kept uninterrupted. The crucial aspect here is to
provide fast and reliable computation of nodal voltages in the microgrid for rapidly
changing loads and generations. Existing methods such as Newton-Raphson algorithms
have mathematical impediments which make them unsuitable for this intelligent energy
distribution management. A power-flow service that can operate in near real-time mode,
based on conclusive holomorphic analyses, is applied in this paper to test-systems
and also to demonstrate the suitability of the algorithm in building grids.
It is also indicative of the need for revision of tools in achieving smarter grids.
10:45am - 11:00am Coffee break
11:00am - 12:15am
Session 1: Building as Smart Consumers (Chair: Therese Peffer)
- Keynote 3: Therese Peffer. People Inside! How sensors can provide comfort and convenience AND deliver energy savings | abstract
The Internet of Things provides many devices that can improve occupant comfort and productivity in buildings, such as heated/cooled chairs, smart plugstrips, and carbon dioxide sensors. This talk will outline several examples of nimbly integrating sensors with building system controls to improve the indoor environmental quality for the people inside.
- Human Thermal Comfort Estimation in Indoor Space by Crowd Sensing
Masao Chiguchi (Osaka University), Hirozumi Yamaguchi (Osaka University), Teruo Higashino (Osaka University), Yoshiyuki Shimoda (Osaka University)
2:00pm - 3:30pm
Session 2: Building as Smart Partners (Chair: Johanna Mathieu)
- Keynote 4: Johanna Mathieu. Engaging distributed flexible electric loads in power system operation | abstract
Actively engaging flexible electric
loads in power systems operation can reduce the inefficiency,
cost, and environmental impact of the system. However, the sensing and
communication requirements of many existing algorithms to schedule and
control distributed loads are significant, and would be expensive to implement.
In this talk I will describe our efforts to infer the behavior (models, states,
and outputs) of aggregations of electric loads from incomplete measurements, and
how our results enable real-time control and optimal reserve scheduling.
- Dynamic data center load response to electricity grid pricing variability
Nathaniel Horner (CMU), Ines Azevedo (CMU), Doug Sicker (CMU), Yuvraj Agarwal (CMU)
- Automated Generation Method of Recommendation for Effective Energy Utilization as a HEMS Service
Takahiro Hosoe (Keio University), Tadanori Matsui (Keio University), Hiroaki Nishi (Keio University)
3:30am - 3:40am Coffee break
3:40pm - 4:20pm
Keynote 5: King Jet/Wei Feng (NTU)
- A Remote Condition Monitoring and Health Prognosis System for a Stand Alone Micro-Grid with Photovoltaics and Battery Bank | abstract
For an existing micro-grid,
the monitoring system design has become a challenge.
The principles for such a monitoring system can be as simple as two aspects.
The first one is to minimize the interaction between the micro-grid and the
monitoring system. And the second one is to maximize the monitoring scope.
Based on it, a remote condition monitoring and health prognosissystem (CMHPS)
is proposed in this paper. The installation of the proposed CMHPS
requires no interruption of the operation ofthe micro-grid.
As an existing micro-grid, the operation and protection has been established
already. Therefore, the CMHPS canbe a system contains no control
algorithms for the micro-grid. In order to maximize the monitoring scope,
the CMHPS will lookinto the cell level of the batteries and module level
of the PV panels. And the power flow measurements of the entire micro-grid
willbe synchronized for tiny angle measurement. By doing this, the prognosis
of the health condition of the micro-grid system, eachmodule of the PV panels
and each cell of the batteries can be achieved.
4:20pm - 5:00pm
Keynote 6: Wei Feng (LBNL)
- Integrating Distributed Energy System in Smart Buildings and Districts | abstract
Distributed energy system has been widely
used in buildings and campus scale energy solutions. However, few application
has considered the integration of different distributed energy technologies in a
way to maximize system level efficiency and minimize cost. The presentation demonstrates
how to use LBNL developed tools to solve the selection of distributed technologies in
district application to serve individual buildings. Models are also applied to solve
district energy system operation to optimize campus scale energy efficiency and
participate grid level ancillary service.
Prof. Costas Spanos
Prof. Costas Spanos is the Andrew S. Grove Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and
Computer Sciences at UC Berkeley, and the Director of CITRIS and the Banatao Institute.
In 1988, Spanos joined the faculty at UC Berkeley, where he has served as Department Chair of Electrical
Engineering and Computer Sciences, the Associate Dean for Research, and the CEO of the Berkeley Educational
Alliance for Research in Singapore. He has been using statistical data mining techniques for energy efficiency
applications, and is the leader of the Singapore-based SinBerBEST project, focusing on energy efficient buildings.
Dr. Wei Feng
Dr. Wei Feng is a Sr. Scientific Engineering Associate at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).
His research focuses on building energy efficiency, building energy simulation, distributed energy system
in buildings and communities, building codes and standards.
Prior to joining LBNL, he worked in building control industry in China focusing on
building system control for energy efficiency, performance measurement, diagnosis
and commissioning. In the U.S., his previous research interests include
built environment modeling and simulation, indoor environmental quality measurement etc.
Prof. Sanjib Kumar Panda
Prof. Sanjib Kumar Panda has been holding a faculty position in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
National University of Singapore since 1992, and currently serving as an Associate Professor and Director of the Power & Energy
Research Area. Dr. Panda has published more than 200 peer-reviewed research papers, co-authored one book and
contributed to several book chapters and six patents. His research interests include high-performance control
of motor drives and power electronic converters, condition monitoring and condition based maintenance, building
Prof. Johanna Mathieu
Prof. Johanna Mathieu is an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical
Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan.
Her research focuses on ways to reduce the environmental impact, cost,
and inefficiency of electric power systems via new operational and control strategies.
She is particularly interested in developing new methods to actively engage distributed
flexible resources such as energy storage, electric loads, and distributed renewable resources
in power system operation. This is especially important in power systems with high penetrations
of wind and solar.
Dr. Therese Peffer
Dr. Therese Peffer is the program Director for CIEE's Enabling Technologies program.
She works on Demand Response, Smart Grid, and "Building-to-Grid" research projects.
She also serves as an Associate Director for i4Energy, the University of California's
research collaborative between CIEE, the Center for Information
Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Her research interests include energy consumption displays, thermostats, and consumer behavior, and other user interface usability research.
Technical Program Committee
- Prof. Kameshwar Poolla , University of California, Berkeley
- Prof. Lin Zhang , Tsinghua University
- Prof. Tseng King Jet , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
- Prof. Soong Boon Hee , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
- Ioannis Konstantakopoulos , University of California, Berkeley
- Dr. Han Zou , University of California, Berkeley
- Dr. Dan Li, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
- Dr. Zhanbo Xu , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
- Weixi Gu , Tsinghua University
- Dr. La Quang Duy , Singapore University of Technology and Design
- Chan Yiu Wing Edwin , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Address: 406 Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Address: 406 Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Prof. Costas Spanos
Address: 510 Cory Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA